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Kotlin/Native 与 Swift/Objective-C 互操作

This document covers some details of Kotlin/Native interoperability with


Kotlin/Native provides bidirectional interoperability with Objective-C.
Objective-C frameworks and libraries can be used in Kotlin code if
properly imported to the build (system frameworks are imported by default).
See e.g. "Using cinterop" in
Gradle plugin documentation.
A Swift library can be used in Kotlin code if its API is exported to Objective-C
with @objc. Pure Swift modules are not yet supported.

Kotlin modules can be used in Swift/Objective-C code if compiled into a
framework (see "Targets and output kinds" section in Gradle plugin documentation).
See calculator sample for an example.


The table below shows how Kotlin concepts are mapped to Swift/Objective-C and vice versa.

Kotlin Swift Objective-C Notes
class class @interface note
interface protocol @protocol
constructor/create Initializer Initializer note
Property Property Property note
Method Method Method note note
@Throws throws error:(NSError**)error note
Extension Extension Category member note
companion member <- Class method or property Class method or property
null nil nil
Singleton Singleton() [Singleton singleton] note
Primitive type Primitive type / NSNumber note
Unit return type Void void
String String NSString
String NSMutableString NSMutableString note
List Array NSArray
MutableList NSMutableArray NSMutableArray
Set Set NSSet
MutableSet NSMutableSet NSMutableSet note
Map Dictionary NSDictionary
MutableMap NSMutableDictionary NSMutableDictionary note
Function type Function type Block pointer type note

Name translation

Objective-C classes are imported into Kotlin with their original names.
Protocols are imported as interfaces with Protocol name suffix,
i.e. @protocol Foo -> interface FooProtocol.
These classes and interfaces are placed into a package specified in build configuration
(platform.* packages for preconfigured system frameworks).

The names of Kotlin classes and interfaces are prefixed when imported to Objective-C.
The prefix is derived from the framework name.


Swift/Objective-C initializers are imported to Kotlin as constructors and factory methods
named create. The latter happens with initializers declared in the Objective-C category or
as a Swift extension, because Kotlin has no concept of extension constructors.

Kotlin constructors are imported as initializers to Swift/Objective-C.

Top-level functions and properties

Top-level Kotlin functions and properties are accessible as members of special classes.
Each Kotlin file is translated into such a class. E.g.

```kotlin // MyLibraryUtils.kt package my.library fun foo() {} ```

can be called from Swift like

```swift MyLibraryUtilsKt.foo() ```

Method names translation

Generally Swift argument labels and Objective-C selector pieces are mapped to Kotlin
parameter names. Anyway these two concepts have different semantics, so sometimes
Swift/Objective-C methods can be imported with a clashing Kotlin signature. In this case
the clashing methods can be called from Kotlin using named arguments, e.g.:

```swift [player moveTo:LEFT byMeters:17] [player moveTo:UP byInches:42] ```

in Kotlin it would be:

```kotlin player.moveTo(LEFT, byMeters = 17) player.moveTo(UP, byInches = 42) ```

Errors and exceptions

Kotlin has no concept of checked exceptions, all Kotlin exceptions are unchecked.
Swift has only checked errors. So if Swift or Objective-C code calls a Kotlin method
which throws an exception to be handled, then the Kotlin method should be marked
with a @Throws annotation. In this case all Kotlin exceptions
(except for instances of Error, RuntimeException and subclasses) are translated into
a Swift error/NSError.

Note that the opposite reversed translation is not implemented yet:
Swift/Objective-C error-throwing methods aren't imported to Kotlin as

Category members

Members of Objective-C categories and Swift extensions are imported to Kotlin
as extensions. That's why these declarations can't be overridden in Kotlin.
And the extension initializers aren't available as Kotlin constructors.

Kotlin singletons

Kotlin singleton (made with an object declaration, including companion object)
is imported to Swift/Objective-C as a class with a single instance.
The instance is available through the factory method, i.e. as
[MySingleton mySingleton] in Objective-C and MySingleton() in Swift.


Kotlin primitive type boxes are mapped to special Swift/Objective-C classes.
For example, kotlin.Int box is represented as KotlinInt class instance in Swift
(or ${prefix}Int instance in Objective-C, where prefix is the framework names prefix).
These classes are derived from NSNumber, so the instances are proper NSNumbers
supporting all corresponding operations.

NSNumber type is not automatically translated to Kotlin primitive types
when used as a Swift/Objective-C parameter type or return value.
The reason is that NSNumber type doesn't provide enough information
about a wrapped primitive value type, i.e. NSNumber is statically not known
to be a e.g. Byte, Boolean, or Double. So Kotlin primitive values
should be cast to/from NSNumber manually (see below).


NSMutableString Objective-C class is not available from Kotlin.
All instances of NSMutableString are copied when passed to Kotlin.


Kotlin collections are converted to Swift/Objective-C collections as described
in the table above. Swift/Objective-C collections are mapped to Kotlin in the same way,
except for NSMutableSet and NSMutableDictionary. NSMutableSet isn't converted to
a Kotlin MutableSet. To pass an object for Kotlin MutableSet,
you can create this kind of Kotlin collection explicitly by either creating it
in Kotlin with e.g. mutableSetOf(), or using the KotlinMutableSet class in Swift
(or ${prefix}MutableSet in Objective-C, where prefix is the framework names prefix).
The same holds for MutableMap.

Function types

Kotlin function-typed objects (e.g. lambdas) are converted to
Swift functions / Objective-C blocks. However there is a difference in how
types of parameters and return values are mapped when translating a function
and a function type. In the latter case primitive types are mapped to their
boxed representation. Kotlin Unit return value is represented
as a corresponding Unit singleton in Swift/Objective-C. The value of this singleton
can be retrieved in the same way as it is for any other Kotlin object
(see singletons in the table above).
To sum the things up:

```kotlin fun foo(block: (Int) -> Unit) { ... } ```

would be represented in Swift as

```swift func foo(block: (KotlinInt) -> KotlinUnit) ```

and can be called like

```kotlin foo { bar($0 as! Int32) return KotlinUnit() } ```

Casting between mapped types

When writing Kotlin code, an object may need to be converted from a Kotlin type
to the equivalent Swift/Objective-C type (or vice versa). In this case a plain old
Kotlin cast can be used, e.g.

```kotlin val nsArray = listOf(1, 2, 3) as NSArray val string = nsString as String val nsNumber = 42 as NSNumber ```


Subclassing Kotlin classes and interfaces from Swift/Objective-C

Kotlin classes and interfaces can be subclassed by Swift/Objective-C classes
and protocols.
Currently a class that adopts the Kotlin protocol should inherit NSObject
(either directly or indirectly). Note that all Kotlin classes do inherit NSObject,
so a Swift/Objective-C subclass of Kotlin class can adopt the Kotlin protocol.

Subclassing Swift/Objective-C classes and protocols from Kotlin

Swift/Objective-C classes and protocols can be subclassed with a Kotlin final class.
Non-final Kotlin classes inheriting Swift/Objective-C types aren't supported yet, so it is
not possible to declare a complex class hierarchy inheriting Swift/Objective-C types.

Normal methods can be overridden using the override Kotlin keyword. In this case
the overriding method must have the same parameter names as the overridden one.

Sometimes it is required to override initializers, e.g. when subclassing UIViewController.
Initializers imported as Kotlin constructors can be overridden by Kotlin constructors
marked with the @OverrideInit annotation:

```swift class ViewController : UIViewController { @OverrideInit constructor(coder: NSCoder) : super(coder) ... } ```

The overriding constructor must have the same parameter names and types as the overridden one.

To override different methods with clashing Kotlin signatures, you can add a
@Suppress("CONFLICTING_OVERLOADS") annotation to the class.

By default the Kotlin/Native compiler doesn't allow calling a non-designated
Objective-C initializer as a super(...) constructor. This behaviour can be
inconvenient if the designated initializers aren't marked properly in the Objective-C
library. Adding a disableDesignatedInitializerChecks = true to the .def file for
this library would disable these compiler checks.

C features

See INTEROP.md for an example case where the library uses some plain C features
(e.g. unsafe pointers, structs etc.).